With precise essays at the Arctic's setting, flora and fauna, weather, background, exploration, assets, economics, politics, indigenous cultures and languages, conservation projects and extra, this Encyclopedia is the single significant paintings and finished reference in this large, complicated, altering, and more and more very important a part of the globe. together with 305 maps.
This Encyclopedia isn't just an updated interdisciplinary paintings of reference for all these taken with instructing or studying Arctic concerns, yet a desirable and entire source for citizens of the Arctic, and all these thinking about international environmental matters, sustainability, technology, and human interactions with the environment.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of the Arctic
The river Glerá runs throughout the city, and via its mouth there's a sandbank, Oddeyri. The northerly place of Akureyri has had substantial impact at the group that has sprung up there. Akureyri is set forty km south of the Arctic Circle, yet on summer season days the temperature can achieve 25°C. Winters, notwithstanding, deliver heavy snowstorm and chilly climate, with calm and nonetheless climate additionally universal. regardless of the geographical isolation, there has continuously been touch with the surface international, at the start via alternate after which via export, mainly of seafood items. The typical harbor at Akureyri is likely one of the most sensible in Iceland. the 1st everlasting population of Eyjafjörður have been Helgi magri (Helgi the tilt) and his spouse Þórunn, who settled there round 900. A polytheist, Helgi lived on the farm of Kristnes (Christ’s peninsula) but in addition worshipped pagan deities. The historical past of the city is especially heavily associated with alternate and providers. alternate started in Akureyri within the sixteenth century, however it used to be now not till 1777 that retailers started dwelling there all yr around. on the finish of the 18th century, the city had ten population, all Danish investors. In 1862, Akureyri was once granted municipal rights. via then, the inhabitants had risen to round three hundred. Gránufélagið, an Icelandic buying and selling corporation, used to be proven on the Oddeyri harbor. A tougher buying and selling corporation was once the KEA (Kaupfélag Eyfirðinga Akureyri) cooperative society, that's nonetheless a stronghold of alternate there. shortly, Akureyri is the biggest neighborhood outdoors the capital zone of Reykjavík, with round 15,000 population. Akureyri is the guts of alternate and providers in northern Iceland and its financial lifestyles is diversified. of the main robust fishing businesses in Iceland, Útgerðarfélag Akureyringa and Samherji, have their headquarters in Akureyri. Herring salting was the town’s major undefined, yet now the emphasis has shifted to trawling, canning, and freezing higher fish. Akureyri acquired its personal printing press in 1852, and because then many newspapers and journals were released there. within the Nineties, makes an attempt have been made to run a countrywide day-by-day, Dagur, from Akureyri, yet failed. a school used to be based within the city in 1928, and in 1987 Akureyri bought its personal collage, which has gradually multiplied on account that then. additionally situated in Akureyri is the Stefansson Arctic Institute (SAI), which used to be proven in 1998 and operates less than the ALASKA auspices of the Icelandic Ministry for the surroundings. It bears the identify of explorer and anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson, who studied Inuit tradition in Canada and Alaska. the various roles of the SAI are to advertise sustainable improvement in northern components, improve Icelandic participation in foreign endeavors during this box, and facilitate and coordinate Arctic study in Iceland. of the Arctic Council’s secretariats can be found in Akureyri— CAFF (Conservation of Arctic natural world) and PAME (Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment)—and town has a starting to be recognition for webhosting workshops, meetings, and lectures on Arctic matters.