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By Jules Toutain

Initially released among 1920-70,The heritage of Civilization was once a landmark in early 20th century publishing. It was once released at a formative time in the social sciences, and through a interval of decisive old discovery. the purpose of the overall editor, C.K. Ogden, was once to summarize the hottest findings and theories of historians, anthropologists, archaeologists and sociologists.

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No. 954. 2 XIX, vol, ii, 1, p. four hundred. three Ibid. , three, pp. 1573 ff. bankruptcy II the industrial lifetime of Carthage1 the commercial lifetime of North Africa, from the higher Syrtis to the Atlantic, remained desk bound for much longer than that of Western Europe. The effect of the Ægean civilization doesn't appear to have made itself felt right here. The pioneers of growth have been first the Phœnician mariners after which Carthage. on the time whilst the sailors of Tyre, and Sidon have been constructing their first ports of name at the north coast of Barbary, the peoples then inhabiting the rustic had now not complex past the civilization of the Stone Age, being nonetheless on the Neolithic degree. the main historical steel items utilized by them have been most likely introduced from out of the country by way of sea. even if our information regarding the beginnings of agriculture in North Africa is especially meagre and extremely obscure, we could think that, not less than in a few elements, wheat, barley, and a few greens, together with the bean, have been grown earlier than any Phoenician effect seemed. at least, stock-breeding already had a massive position in financial existence; oxen, sheep, goats, and horses have been domesticated. that they had maybe come from the East, from Egypt. 2 in line with the main possible reckoning, it used to be within the 12th century B. C. that the 1st Phœnician ships seemed within the waters of the Western Mediterranean. They wanted ports of name alongside the African coast, which will the Spanish mining districts, and those ports, the place the earliest site visitors with the natives without doubt begun, as a result grew to become everlasting "factories," genuine colonies. in keeping with culture, the earliest Phœnician settlements have been, from east to west, Leptis Magna (Lebda), Hadrumetum (Susa), Utica, Hippo Diarrhytos (Bizerta), and Hippo Regius (Bona), and at present, past the Pillars of Hercules, Lixus used to be based (near Larash, south of Tangiers). in the meantime, the Tyrians and Sidonians verified themselves on Malta, on the southern aspect of Sicily, in Sardinia, and at Gades in Spain. Carthage used to be based approximately 2 hundred years after those beginnings of Phœnician colonization within the West; one might properly say that it used to be on the finish of the 9th century. 1 She swiftly turned the main wealthy and robust of most of these colonies. whilst Tyre were first weakened after which ruined through the despotic rule of the Kings of Assyria, Chaldæa, and Persia, Carthage took upon herself the security of the Phœnicians opposed to their competitors, the Greeks, everywhere in the West, and have become the capital of a veritable empire of a marine and advertisement sort. in the beginning of the 5th century, her supremacy was once well-known, willingly or in a different way, by way of the settlements which Tyre and Sidon had based within the Western Mediterranean and alongside the Atlantic coasts northward and southward from the Pillars of Hercules. Her sway prolonged over western Sicily, Sardinia, the Balearic Isles, the west coast of Iberia, and all North Africa so far as the west of Cyrenaica. In Africa, no longer content material with implementing her authority at the coast-towns, she annexed a reasonably large territory within the inside.

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