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A source for college students or common readers who need to know extra concerning the significant principles, philosophies and ideas, either earlier and current, that experience motivated and formed civilization.

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Therefore, they rejected previous associations: agrarian FEUDALISM, ARISTOCRATIC and monarchical govt, conventional CHRISTIAN faith (especially CATHOLIC), and the patriarchal family members. frequently, Enlightenment thinkers have been atheists or deists, rejecting all faith and non secular issues as “superstition” or “metaphysical. ” This mirrored their religion in technology, empiricism, and materialism. For environmentalism/environmental many Enlightenment thinkers, people are certainly reliable and moral, so democracy makes the simplest regime. This rejects the normal Judeo-Christian view that people are sinful and in simple terms sturdy by means of God’s spirit. Enlightenment rules prompted the DEMOCRATIC revolutions in Europe and the United States within the 1700s. They have been carried on through the socialist and communist principles of Karl MARX, Friedrich ENGELS, and V. I. LENIN. those Enlightenment perspectives have been criticized by means of many conservative thinkers (such as Edmund BURKE), the Catholic Church, and different conventional philosophers. via the mid-20th century, the failed social revolutions in France, Russia, and China; global wars; and the brutality of fascism challenged the Enlightenment optimism over the goodness of people, social growth, and human cause. POST-MODERNISM is partially a reaction to this unhappiness with Enlightenment Modernism, as are revivals of conservative, Christian, and different pre-Enlightenment rules. extra examining Hampson, N. The Enlightenment. ny: Pelican, 1968. environmentalism/environmental A social and political stream that seeks to advertise legislation and coverage that safeguard the usual earth atmosphere, preserve normal assets and natural world, hinder damage from toxins and poisonous commercial wastes, and fix fit normal residing and dealing environments on this planet. Early environmentalists John Muir and Aldo Leopold within the nineteenth century emphasised conserving unspoiled normal environments within the usa via nationwide parks and preserves. Such methods to environmentalism persisted within the twentieth century via such teams because the Audubon Society and the Sierra membership. those teams foyer the govt. to have laws handed selling upkeep of nature parts from advertisement improvement. This led within the Nineteen Sixties to environmentalists operating to manage companies (such as factories, chemical businesses, the auto undefined) that pollute the average environ-ment (air, rivers, lakes, oceans, land). the yank fresh Air and Water Act legislated a lot of the environmentalist reason. legislation referring to poisonous waste disposal, employees’ environmental safeguard, animal inhabitants keep an eye on, and nutrients labeling additionally emerged from the environmental circulation. simply because a lot of ninety five its concentration is on financial resources of environmental harm, this environmentalist schedule is usually noticeable as in clash with company job and pursuits. a up to date improvement within the political considered environmentalism is the environmental-justice circulate. rising within the Nineteen Eighties within the usa, this component of environmentalism blends MARXISM, COMMUNISM, FEMINISM, and racial wisdom with predicament for the average atmosphere.

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