By Christine Ammer
This reference presents in-depth causes and examples of greater than 3000 musical phrases and subject matters, together with biographies of composers. Spanning early historical past to the current day the dictionary comprises causes of phrases, illustrations of tools, repertory for some of the tools, pronunciations of overseas phrases and composers and inclusion of charts offering additional info on vital ballets, operas and symphonies. matters lined comprise: a capella; afterbeat; bluegrass; cantata; cajun song; chamber opera; electronic recording; electronica; movie tune; guitar; jazz; masque; second shape; open hamony; pedal clavichord; reggae; string quartet; studio song; and woodwind quintet.
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Additional info for Dictionary of Music (Facts on File)
Fiero (fyer′rô) Italian. A course to accomplish in a daring, lively demeanour. fife A small flute, a little bit decrease in pitch than the piccolo yet shriller in tone, which this present day is used commonly in army bands. initially a fife had 5 or 6 finger holes and no keys (see illus. ), yet in sleek shape it has six finger holes and a number of keys, creating a larger variety of notes on hand. Bands made of fifes and drums (fife and drum corps) date again so far as the 15th century, while the Swiss used them to accompany foot squaddies. The fife remains to be an enormous people software. fig. ninety seven p/u from p. 142 15th The period of 2 octaves, for instance, from heart C to excessive C. fig. ninety eight p/u from p. 142 5th additionally, excellent 5th. The period made of the 1st and 5th tones (in emerging order of pitches) in any significant or minor scale, for instance, C–G within the scale of C significant (do and sol in solmization syllables). —augmented 5th The period one part tone higher than an ideal 5th, reminiscent of C –G or 140 figuration C–G . —diminished 5th The period one part tone smaller than an ideal 5th, resembling C –G or C–G . fig. ninety nine p/u from p. 143 figuration A rhythmic or melodic development that's repeated again and again. this custom was once quite common within the song of the 17th and eighteenth centuries. (See instance at ALBERTI BASS. ) determine additionally, cause (mo¯′tiv), motif (mo¯ te¯f′). The shortest attainable musical concept, occasionally together with merely notes, just like the name of the cuckoo. A determine will be impressive as a result of its rhythm, or its melody, or either. Its value in a composition stems from the way it is treated—for instance, repeated time and again, reappearing within the similar or in numerous kinds, or reappearing in several voice-parts. Figures are usually components of a bigger musical thought, referred to as a topic or subject. See additionally LEITMOTIF. figured bass within the baroque interval (1600–1750), numbers positioned above or under the notes of the bass half to teach the accompanist (usually enjoying a harpsichord or different keyboard device) the periods required for the concord. utilizing those, one then might improvise the particular chords. frequently a cello, fig. a hundred p/u from p. 143 viola da gamba (bass viol), or bassoon used to be performed besides the keyboard device to enhance the bass line. the instance within the contrary column exhibits a section of the 1st tenor recitative from Bach’s Cantata no. one hundred forty, Wachet auf (“Awake”). The determine five below the 1st bass word, C, demands a G (the observe a 5th above C); the sixty four demands the durations a 6th and a fourth above C, which during this key (E-flat) are F and A-flat. The 7 with a cut back via it implies that the 7th above C could be raised a part tone, from B-flat to B usual. even if sharps are sometimes referred to as for during this means, at different occasions they're indicated just by a pointy signal ( ), and usual and flat are almost always indicated by way of their respective symptoms ( , ), even supposing a flat might be canceled by means of a pointy signal and vice versa. The determine 6 less than the G within the 3rd degree, even though it stands on my own, implies not just a 6th (here, E-flat) but additionally the 3rd (B-flat).