When males have been Men questions the deep-set assumption that men's heritage speaks and has constantly spoken for we all, by way of exploring the heritage of classical antiquity as an explicitly masculine story.
With a preface through Sarah Pomeroy, this examine employs varied methodologies and specializes in a huge variety of resource fabrics, sessions and locations.
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Extra resources for When Men Were Men: Masculinity, Power and Identity in Classical Antiquity (Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society)
Colleagues and 'friends. The im·ention (or mind's eye? ) of rationality The idea of rationality might be an important a part of the classical historical past to be included into glossy proposal. you possibly can argue (though a stunning variety of classical students don't) that historical rationality was once masculine in gender in all senses (Lloyd 1984. 1-9. 18-33). Rationality within the feel of a natural, disembodied. decontextualized good judgment, in a position to resulting in the (male) human regulate of natural cause and fact, the emblems. used to be a idea restricted to a small, eccentric staff of elite males. with fairly little impression at the remainder of society. the concept such value-free wisdom in an absolute feel exists has been bombarded by way of feminist reviews lately. striking between those is the feminist dismantling of 'value-free· medical reasoning, thirteen which demonstrates truly that culturally particular notions of gender hierarchies permeate the metaphors we use to symbolize 7 LIN FOXHALL the underlying workings of the universe. Such perspectives have additionally been challenged through fresh writing on masculinity within the West (for example. Seidler 1989, 14-21, 183-6). equally, the suggestion of 'reason' as a high quality inherent in, or extra absolutely built in males (a inspiration which definitely has classical roots) has been a leitmotif of Western tradition (Jordanova 1980). definitely the ancients and their successors envisaged the emblems as a masculine attribute, reproduced through masculine genealogies. girls hardly input those highbrow genealogies, and after they do it's only via 'becoming' males, wearing the male costume of natural cause, just like the woman philosophers whom Plutarch widespread (see Harries, this volume). even if, the factors wherein gendered rationality is evaluated are back movable aim posts, for male behaviour, even if it sounds as if 'irrational', resembling severe grief. is kept from being considered as dangerously uncontrolled (as comparable behaviour through girls will be pen:eived) via the truth that those specific males are warriors-· a task denied to girls (see van Wees. this volume). The feminist philosopher Luce lrigaray (1985, 1991, 1993) takes the view that girls were conditioned to function as multiplicities instead of (like males) as unities. arguing that such 'classic' rationality as calls for singularity of identification, non-contradiction and the structures of oppositions is a frequently male invention. girls can perform it totally provided that they provide up their womanhood (see Harlow, Clark. in Foxhall and Salmon 1998). one can move even extra, to postulate that the type of catcgori7. ation of the area implied by means of both historical philosophical or smooth medical rationality is a style of suggestion which seeks. certainly pretends, to dominate the universe (Lloyd 1984, 7-17). The telos, the logical implication of those modes of reasoning, is that it truly is finally attainable to understand every little thing and thereby keep an eye on it (since to grasp is to control). stepping outdoor the details of human time and area within which '''e locate ourselves positioned (French 1994, 18-22).